August 18, 2022

Youth mental health is in crisis. Are schools doing enough?

article reposted by Chelsea


KENTUCKY, United States (AP) — For fourth-grader Leah Rainey, the school day now begins with what her teacher calls an “emotional check-in”.

“It’s great to see you. How are you feeling?” chirps a cheery voice on her laptop screen. It asks her to click an emoji matching her state of mind: happy, sad, worried, angry, frustrated, calm, silly, and tired.

Depending on the answer, Leah, nine, gets advice from a cartoon avatar on managing her mood and a few more questions: Have you eaten breakfast? Are you hurt or sick? Is everything OK at home? Is someone at school being unkind? Today, Leah chooses silly, but says she struggled with sadness during online learning.

At Lakewood Elementary School, all 420 students will start their days the same way this year. The rural Kentucky school is one of thousands across the country using the technology to screen students’ state of mind and alert teachers to anyone struggling.

In some ways, this year’s back-to-school season will restore a degree of pre-pandemic normality: Most districts have lifted mask mandates, dropped COVID-19 vaccine requirements and ended rules on social distancing and quarantines.

But many of the pandemic’s longer-lasting impacts remain a troubling reality for schools. Among them: the harmful effects of isolation and remote learning on children’s emotional well-being.

Student mental health reached crisis levels last year, and the pressure on schools to figure out solutions has never been greater. Districts across the country are using federal pandemic money to hire more mental health specialists, rolling out new coping tools and expanding curriculum that prioritises emotional health.

Still, some parents don’t believe schools should be involved in mental health at all. So-called social-emotional learning (SEL) has become the latest political flashpoint, with conservatives saying schools use it to promote progressive ideas about race, gender, and sexuality, or that a focus on well-being takes attention from academics.

But at schools like Lakewood, educators say helping students manage emotions and stress will benefit them in the classroom and throughout life.

The school, in a farming community an hour’s drive south of Louisville, has used federal money to create take-a-break corners in each classroom. Students can rifle through a self-regulation kit with tips on deep breathing, squishy stress balls, and acupuncture rings, said school counsellor Shelly Kerr. The school plans to build a Reset Room this fall, part of an emerging national trend to create campus sanctuaries where students can go to decompress and speak with a counsellor.

The online student screener Lakewood uses, called Closegap, helps teachers identify shy, quiet kids who might need to talk and would have otherwise gone unnoticed.

Closegap founder Rachel Miller launched the online platform in 2019 with a few schools and saw interest explode after the pandemic hit. This year, she said, more than 3,600 US schools will be using the technology, which has free and premium versions.

“We are finally beginning to recognise that school is more than just teaching the kids reading, writing, and arithmetic,” said Dan Domenech, executive director of the national School Superintendents’ Association. Just as free lunch programmes are based on the idea that a hungry child can’t learn, more and more schools are embracing the idea that a cluttered or troubled mind cannot focus on schoolwork, he said.

The pandemic magnified the fragility of mental health among American youth, who had been experiencing a rise in depression, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts for years, experts say. A recent report issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found 44 per cent of high school students said they experienced “persistent feelings of sadness or hopelessness” during the pandemic, with girls and LGBTQ youth reporting the highest levels of poor mental health and suicide attempts.

“All of these opportunities and resources are temporary,” said junior Claire Chi, who attends State College Area High School in central Pennsylvania. Last year her school added emergency counselling and therapy dogs, among other supports, but most of that help lasted a day or two, Chi said. And that’s “not really a mental health investment for students”. This year, the school says it has added more counsellors and plans mental health training for all 10th graders.

Some critics, including many conservative parents, don’t want to see mental health support in schools in the first place. Asra Nomani, a mom from Fairfax County, Virginia, says schools are using the mental health crisis as a “Trojan horse” to introduce liberal ideas about sexual and racial identity. She also worries schools lack the expertise to deal with student mental illness.

“Social-emotional well-being has become an excuse to intervene in the lives of children in the most intimate of ways that are both dangerous and irresponsible,” Nomani said, “because they’re in the hands of people who are not trained professionals.”

Despite the unprecedented funding, schools are having trouble hiring counsellors, mirroring the shortages in other American industries.

Goshen Junior High School in north-west Indiana has been struggling to fill a vacancy of a counsellor who left last year, when student anxiety and other behavioural problems were “off the charts”, said Jan Desmarais-Morse, one of two counsellors left at the school, with caseloads of 500 students each.

“One person trying to meet the needs of 500 students?” said Desmarais-Morse. “It’s impossible.”

The American School Counselor Association recommends a ratio of 250 students per school counsellor, which few states come close to meeting.

For the 2020-2021 school year only two states — New Hampshire and Vermont — achieved that goal, according to an Associated Press analysis of data from the National Center for Education Statistics. Some states face staggeringly high ratios: Arizona averages one counsellor to 716 students; in Michigan, one to 638; and in Minnesota, one to 592.

Also in Indiana, the School City of Hammond won a grant to hire clinical therapists at all 17 of its schools but has not been able to fill most of the new jobs, said Superintendent Scott Miller. “Schools are stealing from other schools. There just aren’t enough workers to go around.” And despite more funding, school salaries can’t compete with private counselling practices, which are also overwhelmed and trying to hire more staff.

Another challenge for schools is identifying struggling children before they’re in emotional crisis. At the Houston Independent School District, one of the largest in the country with 277 schools and nearly 200,000 students, students are asked each morning to hold up fingers showing how they feel. One finger means a child is hurting deeply, five means she or he feels great.

“It’s identifying your brush fires early in the day,” said Sean Ricks, the district’s senior manager of crisis intervention.

Houston teachers now give mindfulness lessons with ocean sounds played via YouTube, and a Chihuahua named Luci and a cockapoo named Omi have joined the district’s crisis team.

Grant funding helped Houston build relaxation rooms, known as Thinkeries, at 10 schools last year, costing about US$5,000 each. District data show campuses with Thinkeries, which sport bean bag chairs and warmly coloured walls, saw a 62 per cent decrease in calls to a crisis line last year, Ricks said. The district is building more this year.

But the rooms themselves are not a panacea. For the calming rooms to work, schools must teach students to recognise they feel angry or frustrated. Then they can use the space to decompress before their emotions erupt, said Kevin Dahill-Fuchel, executive director of Counseling in Schools, a non-profit that helps schools bolster mental health services.

In the last days of summer vacation, a Well Space at University High School in Irvine, California, was getting finishing touches from an artist who painted a mural of a giant moon over mountains. Potted succulents, jute rugs, Buddha-like statuettes, and a hanging egg chair brought an un-school-like feel. When school starts this week, the room is to be staffed full-time with a counsellor or mental health specialist.

The goal is to normalise the idea of asking for help and give students a place to reset. “If they can recentre and refocus,” Blakely said, “they can then, after a short break, go back into their classrooms and be prepared for deeper learning.”

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